chemical processes

acetylation reaction


In chemistry, acetylation is an organic reaction in which an acetyl group (CH3CO-) is introduced into a molecule. This reaction typically involves the use of acetic acid (CH3COOH) or acetic anhydride (CH3CO)2O as the acetylating agent. The resulting product is called acetate.
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Production methods of Benzene

Production of Benzene

Benzene was traditionally produced from coal, but petroleum became the primary source in the mid-20th century due to new processes and increased demand. Catalytic cracking and reforming of petroleum fractions produce benzene and other aromatics.
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benzaldehyde condensation reaction

Benzaldehyde Condensation

Benzaldehyde condensation is a chemical reaction between benzaldehyde and an aldehyde or ketone molecules with an α-hydrogen to form an β-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone. The reaction is typically catalyzed by a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
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Condensation reaction to form amino resins

Production of Amino Resin

Amino resin production is a two-step process: hydroxymethylation and condensation. Hydroxymethylation is the addition of formaldehyde to an amino compound, such as urea, to form a hydroxymethyl derivative. Condensation is the reaction of two hydroxymethyl derivatives to form a larger molecule.
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reduction of nitro aromatic compounds

Production of Aromatic Amines

Aromatic amines are produced by three types of reactions: Reductions: using metallic elements like Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Tin (Sn), Aluminum (Al), or their corresponding salts; sulfur-containing compounds; electrochemical procedures; and catalytic hydrogenation. Nucleophilic substitutions: involving the exchange of substituents like halogen, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and sulfonic groups. Rearrangements and degradations: including transformations such as the benzidine and Beckmann rearrangements, along with the Schmidt and Hofmann degradations. It should be noted that the first two reaction types are more important. Chemical rearrangements and degradations rarely result in pure reaction products with high yields.
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Guerbet Alcohols

Production Methods of Aliphatic Alcohols

Production of aliphatic alcohols occurs by various industrial processes, some of which are listed below: Synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen (C1) Oxo synthesis, often accompanied by hydrogenation of initially formed aldehydes (C3 - C20) Hydrogenation of aldehydes, carboxylic acids, or esters Aldol condensation of lower aldehydes followed by hydrogenation of the alkenals (C3 → C6, C4 → C8, C8 → C16) Oxidation of trialkylaluminum compounds (Ziegler process) Oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons Hydration of olefins (C2–C4) Homologation of alcohols Hydrocarbonylation by the Reppe process Hydrocarboxymethylation Fermentation processes (C2–C5) Guerbet process
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nitration reaction

Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

The nitration reaction is a chemical process in which one or more nitro (NO2) groups are introduced into an aromatic nucleus by replacing a hydrogen atom. It is an electrophilic substitution reaction commonly used to modify aromatic compounds by attaching nitro groups, which can significantly alter their properties and reactivity.
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