Chemical Processes

acetylation reaction


In chemistry, acetylation is an organic reaction in which an acetyl group (CH3CO-) is introduced into a molecule. This reaction typically involves the use of acetic acid (CH3COOH) or acetic anhydride (CH3CO)2O as the acetylating agent. The resulting product is called acetate.
Read MoreAcetylation
benzaldehyde condensation reaction

Benzaldehyde Condensation

Benzaldehyde condensation is a chemical reaction between benzaldehyde and an aldehyde or ketone molecules with an α-hydrogen to form an β-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone. The reaction is typically catalyzed by a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Read MoreBenzaldehyde Condensation
Condensation reaction to form amino resins

Production of Amino Resins

Amino resin production is a two-step process: hydroxymethylation and condensation. Hydroxymethylation is the addition of formaldehyde to an amino compound, such as urea, to form a hydroxymethyl derivative. Condensation is the reaction of two hydroxymethyl derivatives to form a larger molecule.
Read MoreProduction of Amino Resins
reduction of nitro aromatic compounds

Production of Aromatic Amines

Aromatic amines are produced by three types of reactions: Reductions: using metallic elements like Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Tin (Sn), Aluminum (Al), or their corresponding salts; sulfur-containing compounds; electrochemical procedures; and catalytic hydrogenation. Nucleophilic substitutions: involving the exchange of substituents like halogen, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and sulfonic groups. Rearrangements and degradations: including transformations such as the benzidine and Beckmann rearrangements, along with the Schmidt and Hofmann degradations. It should be noted that the first two reaction types are more important. Chemical rearrangements and degradations rarely result in pure reaction products with high yields.
Read MoreProduction of Aromatic Amines
production of Aldehydes by Oxo Synthesis

Production Methods of Aliphatic Aldehydes

The primary method of producing aldehydes is oxo synthesis, achieved by mild oxidation (dehydrogenation) of primary alcohols and specialized olefin oxidation processes. In the essential oils of various plants, trace amounts of aldehydes occur naturally. Acetaldehyde, a byproduct of alcohol fermentation, forms by the decarboxylation of the intermediary pyruvic acid.
Read MoreProduction Methods of Aliphatic Aldehydes
Guerbet Alcohols

Production Methods of Aliphatic Alcohols

Production of aliphatic alcohols occurs by various industrial processes, some of which are listed below: Synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen (C1) Oxo synthesis, often accompanied by hydrogenation of initially formed aldehydes (C3 - C20) Hydrogenation of aldehydes, carboxylic acids, or esters Aldol condensation of lower aldehydes followed by hydrogenation of the alkenals (C3 → C6, C4 → C8, C8 → C16) Oxidation of trialkylaluminum compounds (Ziegler process) Oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons Hydration of olefins (C2–C4) Homologation of alcohols Hydrocarbonylation by the Reppe process Hydrocarboxymethylation Fermentation processes (C2–C5) Guerbet process
Read MoreProduction Methods of Aliphatic Alcohols
nitration reaction

Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

The nitration reaction is a chemical process in which one or more nitro (NO2) groups are introduced into an aromatic nucleus by replacing a hydrogen atom. It is an electrophilic substitution reaction commonly used to modify aromatic compounds by attaching nitro groups, which can significantly alter their properties and reactivity.
Read MoreNitration of Aromatic Compounds
Friedel – Crafts acylation

Acylation of Aromatic Compounds

The Friedel-Crafts acylation involves the production of an aromatic ketone by the reaction between an aromatic compound and an acylating agent, which could be an acyl halide, an acid anhydride, an acid, or an ester. This reaction takes place in the presence of an acidic catalyst.
Read MoreAcylation of Aromatic Compounds
Friedel – Crafts alkylation of aromatic

Alkylation of Aromatic Compounds

The Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic compounds involves an acid-catalyzed electrophilic substitution, wherein an alkyl group replaces an aromatic hydrogen. A diverse range of alkylating agents, such as olefins, alkyl halides, and alcohols, is commonly employed for this purpose.
Read MoreAlkylation of Aromatic Compounds